A Quote (offer) has to be created from a sales opportunity and will always reflect the opportunity as it appears at the time when you create the quote.
If you need to use fields that do not come with by merging a quote directly from the opportunity, you can specifically create the offer as "Advanced quote". It gives you more merge fields.
If you need to make a new version of a quote (with changed product / price composition), you do so by adjusting the opportunity and then merge the new offer. The previous offer will then be marked as history and the new one will apply.